Di gali dari rujukan berikut. Semoga dapat dimenafaatkan oleh mereka yang berhasrat untuk membina kerjayanya:
Lewis, P.S., Goodman, S.H., and Fandt, P.M.; “Management - Challenges In The 21st Century”; West Publishing Company; 1995.
Defination of Career development and Management
The individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behavoiur associated with work-related experiences, activities, and position over the span of person’s life. Involve movement within the organisation ( such as moving up the organisational ladder) and between the organisations, as well as the attitudes and behaviours that are associated with the ongoing work-related activities and experiences.
Career development and management could be viewed as series of stages:
Exploring and testing
Usulally corresponds to the eraly years of an individual career. The individual explores talents, interests, and values; try to find or match between career and self-image; make an initial choice of the occupation, and attempt to become establish. Socialisation transforms the newcomer into effective member of the organisation. In this stage, individuals are expcted to follow directions and play roles as helper or leaner. Supervisors provide coaching relationship, feedback, guidance and opportunities.
Establishment and Advancement
Individual establishes career goals and strive to acheieve them, heavily oriented towards building a record of significant accomplishement that relate success. Supervisors provide challenging task and provide feedback about performance. Individuals likely to involve in special assignments, transfer and promotions, becoming more visible in higher management, oftem become more specialised, develope area expertise, acquire professional standing and take over organisational responsibilities.
Movement into this stage often associated with professional accomplishments, progress up the organisational hierachy, high involvement in the job, and the responsibility for training and directing others.
Main stage in this stage involve remaining a productive contributor with strong sense of self-worth, developing and training possible successor and completing major long term projects and assignments. Individuals in this stage must develope self-image, be provided with lot of freedom and autonomy.
Individuals should establish their own career criteria for success and those criteria can be as diverse as pay, adventure, challenges or helping others. 4 alternatives career concepts that serve as the models for the ideal career have been identified.
1. Linear career
An individual decides on a field early in life, develop a plan for upward mobility and executes it. The linear career is often linked to a need for achievement and power.
2. Steady-state career
An individual selects a specific field of work and may continue to improve professionally and financially within that field. The seady-state career -driven person does not necessatily strive to move up the corporate hierachy, but may remain at the same level of the organisation indefinitely. The carrer concept is motivated by the need for security and the desire to maintain role in the society.
3. Spiral career
The individual views a career as a series of infrequent but major shift into different field of work. Within each occupation the person work hard and excels in status and rank before moving on to new opportunities and challenges. Individuals are motivated by the need for personal growth.
4. Transitory career.
The individuals explore alternatives while seeking to fing carrier identity. . Transitory career individuals are often troubleshooters who are driven by novelty and challenge of problemsolving. These individulas are motivated by the need for independence and identity and often drift one occupation to another with no particular pattern.
Strategies For Career Management
Career management is the longlife process of learning obout oneself and about various jobs in the organisation. It involves setting the personal goals, developing strategies for achieving goals, and revising goals based on the work life experience.
Individuals can engage in career development and management on their own or in conjuction with career development progrmmes sponsored by the organisation. In the size reduction of middle management, restructuring and rightsizing within the organisation, many individuals were thrown offtrack and landed on the career plateau (i.e.. the point where the likelyhood of future promotion is very low), which could possibly be overcome by:
- using career counselling
- developing a strong network of other professionals
- becoming adaptable and less speicalised
- learning to be a team player
Develop a strong professional network
Networking is the determined effort to meet other professionals with the goal of building resource of professional experience, knowledge and friendship. It is the 2-way relationship focussed on exchage ideas, new informations and new contacts.
Hints for building network:
- join international organisations of related field
- exhange business card
- introduce yourself and show interest
- ask question and be effective listener
- develop strong relationship within the organisation
- keep note on the poeple met
Become adaptable and less specialise
Infuture, workers would be rewarded for knowldge and adaprability, indication on less emphasis on carrer specialisation and more on generalisation. A key carrer anagement strategy is to be flexible and willing to move from one funtion to another by integrating various disciline and perspectives.
Learn to be team player
Learn to be team player
Team design requires managers to share more ower with people they once regarded as subordinates, and employees of lower rank experience more responsibilities. People skill become extremely imporatant and even leaders should leran how to follow.
Tactics For Career Succees
5 tactics have been identified as improtant for career success
- Do excellent work. Political savvy could give the average performer but politicsmay backfire. As a rule, the better the work the greater the chance of being promoted and given greater authority and responsibilities
- Increase your visibility.
Stratgies for being visible:
- Send memos to superior when projects have been completed.
- Submit periodic progress report.
- Actively solicit and use feedback.
- Get assigned to a high-impact special projects and task forces.
- Pay honest compliments to people.
- Volunteer for a variety of assignments.
- Be mobile. Be flxilbe and prepared to move. Experience different management fuction to develop various skills neded. Take new tasks with variety of people. Experience at various geograhical locations.
- Find a mentor, better several mentors. Higher level manager could be powerful mentors and learn from them.
- Avoid deadwood. Incompetence supervisor seldom appreciate the subordinate abilities and their recommendations will not seriously be taken, and they themselves has been bypassed. If asking for transfer from deadwoods is considered disloyalty, ensure the superior from other department knows of your work and availability and let that manager arrange the transfer.